Human Enterovirus 109: a novel inter-species recombinant enterovirus discovered in acute pediatric respiratory illness in Nicaragua
Yozwiak NL, Skewes-Cox P, Gordon A, Saborio S, Kuan G, Balmaseda A, Ganem D, Harris E, Derisi JLJ Virol. 2010 Abstract:
Enteroviruses (Picornaviridae family) are a common cause of human illness worldwide and are associated with diverse clinical syndromes, including asymptomatic infection, respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and meningitis. In this study, we report the identification and complete genome sequence of a novel enterovirus isolated from a case of acute respiratory illness in a Nicaraguan child. Unbiased deep sequencing of nucleic acid from a nose and throat swab sample enabled rapid recovery of the full-genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEV109 is most closely related to serotypes of enterovirus species C (HEV-C) in all genomic regions except the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR). Bootstrap analysis indicates that the 5' UTR of HEV109 is likely the product of an inter-species recombination event between ancestral members of the HEV-A and HEV-C groups. Overall, the HEV109 coding region shares 67-72% nucleotide sequence identity with its nearest relatives. HEV109 isolates were detected in 5/310 (1.6%) of nose and throat swab samples collected from children in a pediatric cohort study of influenza-like illness in Managua, Nicaragua between June 2007 and June 2008. Further experimentation is required to more fully characterize the pathogenic role, disease associations, and global distribution of HEV109.