Genome-wide map of DNA synthesis in Sc reveals mechanisms preventing reinitiation of DNA replication are not redundant.
Green BM, Morreale RJ, Ozaydin B, DeRisi JL, Li JJMol Biol Cell 2006Abstract:
To maintain genomic stability, reinitiation of eukaryotic DNA replication within a single cell cycle is blocked by multiple mechanisms that inactivate or remove replication proteins after G1 phase. Consistent with the prevailing notion that these mechanisms are redundant, we previously showed that simultaneous deregulation of three replication proteins, ORC, Cdc6, and Mcm2-7, was necessary to cause detectable bulk re-replication in G2/M phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we used microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to provide a more comprehensive and detailed analysis of re-replication. This genome-wide analysis suggests that reinitiation in G2/M phase primarily occurs at a subset of both active and latent origins, but is independent of chromosomal determinants that specify the use and timing of these origins in S phase. We demonstrate that re-replication can be induced within S phase, but differs in amount and location from re-replication in G2/M phase, illustrating the dynamic nature of DNA replication controls. Finally, we show that very limited re-replication can be detected by microarray CGH when only two replication proteins are deregulated, suggesting that the mechanisms blocking re-replication are not redundant. Therefore we propose that eukaryotic re-replication at levels below current detection limits may be more prevalent and a greater source of genomic instability than previously appreciated.